LinuC Level 1

LinuC-1

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Exam 102 Objectives

LinuC Level 1 certification is awarded after passing both Exam 101 and Exam 102. This exam covers the skills necessary for Linux professionals common to all Linux distributions.

Each item on the exam is weighted for its importance. The weight is approximately in the range 1 to 10, and indicates the relative importance of the topic covered. Questions on topics with higher weight appear more often in the exams.

Topic 105: Shell, Script and Data Management

105.1 Customize and use the shell environment
Weight 4
Description Candidates should be able to customize shell environments to meet requirements of users. They should be able to modify global and user profiles.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Set environment variables (e.g. PATH) at login or when spawning a new shell
  • Write Bash functions for frequently used sequences of commands
  • Maintain skeleton directories for new user accounts
  • Set command search path to the appropriate directory
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • .
  • source
  • /etc/bash.bashrc
  • /etc/profile
  • env
  • export
  • set
  • unset
  • ~/.bash_profile
  • ~/.bash_login
  • ~/.profile
  • ~/.bashrc
  • ~/.bash_logout
  • function
  • alias
  • lists
105.2 Customize or write simple scripts
Weight 4
Description Candidates should be able to customize existing scripts or write simple new Bash scripts.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Use standard sh syntax (loops, tests)
  • Use command substitution
  • Test return values for success or failure or other information provided by a command
  • Perform conditional mailing to the superuser
  • Select the correct script interpreter through the shebang (#!) line
  • Manage the location, ownership, execution and SUID permission of scripts
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • for
  • while
  • test
  • if
  • read
  • seq
  • exec
105.3 SQL data management
Weight 2
Description Candidates should be able to query databases and manipulate data using basic SQL commands. This objective includes performing queries involving joining of 2 tables or subselects.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Use of basic SQL commands
  • Perform basic data manipulation
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • insert
  • update
  • select
  • delete
  • from
  • where
  • group by
  • order by
  • join

Topic 106: User Interface and Desktop

106.1 Install and configure X11
Weight 2
Description Candidates should be able to install and configure X11.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Verify that the video card and monitor are supported by an X server
  • Know about X font server
  • Basic understanding and knowledge of the X Window configuration file
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • xhost
  • DISPLAY
  • xwininfo
  • xdpyinfo
  • X
106.2 Display manager setting
Weight 1
Description Candidates should be able to describe the basic functions and configuration of the LightDM display manager. This objective covers the display managers XDM (X Display Manger), GDM (Gnome Display Manager), and KDM (KDE Display Manager).
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Basic configuration of LightDM
  • Turn the display manager on or off
  • Change the display manager greeting
  • Awareness of XDM, KDM, and GDM
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • lightdm
  • /etc/lightdm/
106.3 Accessibility
Weight 1
Description Candidates should demonstrate understanding of accessibility technologies.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Basic knowledge of keyboard accessibility settings (AccessX)
  • Basic knowledge of visual settings and themes
  • Basic knowledge of assistive technology (AT)
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • Sticky/Repeat Keys
  • Slow/Bounce/Toggle Keys
  • Mouse Keys
  • High contrast / large print desktop themes
  • Screen reader
  • Braille display
  • Screen magnifier
  • On-screen keyboard
  • Gestures (used at login, for example GDM)
  • Orca.
  • GOK.
  • emacspeak.

Topic 107: Management Tasks

107.1 Manage user and group accounts and related system files
Weight 5
Description Candidates should be able to add, remove, suspend, and change user accounts
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Add, modify, and remove users and groups
  • Manage user/group info in password/group databases
  • Create and manage special purpose and limited accounts
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • /etc/passwd
  • /etc/shadow
  • /etc/group
  • /etc/skel/
  • chage
  • getent
  • groupadd
  • groupdel
  • groupmod
  • passwd
  • useradd
  • userdel
  • usermod
107.2 Automate system administration tasks by scheduling jobs
Weight 4
Description Candidates should be able to use cron or anacron to run jobs at regular intervals and to use at to run jobs at a specific time.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Manage cron and at jobs
  • Configure user access to cron and at services
  • Configure anacron
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • /etc/cron.{d,daily,hourly,monthly,weekly}/
  • /etc/at.deny
  • /etc/at.allow
  • /etc/crontab
  • /etc/cron.allow
  • /etc/cron.deny
  • /var/spool/cron/
  • crontab
  • at
  • atq
  • atrm
  • anacron
  • /etc/anacrontab
107.3 Localization and internationalization
Weight 3
Description Candidates should be able to localize a system in a different language than English. Candidates should understand why LANG=C is useful when scripting.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Configure locale settings and environment variables
  • Configure timezone settings and environment variables
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • /etc/timezone
  • /etc/localtime
  • /usr/share/zoneinfo/
  • LC_*
  • LC_ALL
  • LANG
  • TZ
  • /usr/bin/locale
  • tzselect
  • tzconfig
  • date
  • iconv
  • UTF-8
  • ISO-8859
  • ASCII
  • Unicode

Topic 108: Essential System Services

108.1 Maintain system time
Weight 3
Description Candidates should be able to properly maintain the system time and synchronize the clock via NTP.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Set the system date and time
  • Set the hardware clock to the correct time in UTC
  • Configure the correct timezone
  • Basic NTP configuration
  • Knowledge of using the pool.ntp.org service
  • Awareness of the ntpq command
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • /usr/share/zoneinfo/
  • /etc/timezone
  • /etc/localtime
  • /etc/ntp.conf
  • date
  • hwclock
  • ntpd
  • ntpdate
  • pool.ntp.org
108.2 System log
Weight 3
Description Candidates should be able to configure the syslog daemon. This objective also includes configuring the logging daemon to send log output to a central log server or accept log output as a central log server. Use of the systemd journal subsystem is covered. Also, awareness of rsyslog and syslog-ng as alternative logging systems is included.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Configuration of the syslog daemon
  • Understanding of standard facilities, priorities, and actions
  • Configuration of logrotate
  • Awareness of rsyslog and syslog-ng
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • syslog.conf
  • syslogd
  • klogd
  • /var/log/
  • logger
  • logrotate
  • /etc/logrotate.conf
  • /etc/logrotate.d/
  • journalctl
  • /etc/systemd/journald.conf
  • /var/log/journal/
108.3 Basics of Mail Transfer Agent (MTA)
Weight 3
Description Candidates should be aware of the commonly available MTA programs and be able to perform basic forwarding and alias configuration on a client host. Other configuration files are not covered.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Create e-mail aliases
  • Configure e-mail forwarding
  • Knowledge of commonly available MTA programs (postfix, sendmail, qmail, exim) (no configuration)
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • ~/.forward
  • sendmail emulation layer commands
  • newaliases
  • mail
  • mailq
  • postfix
  • sendmail
  • exim
  • qmail
108.4 Manage printers and printing
Weight 2
Description Candidates should be able to manage print queues and user print jobs using CUPS and the LPD compatibility interface.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Basic CUPS configuration (for local and remote printers)
  • Manage user print queues
  • Troubleshoot general printing problems
  • Add and remove jobs from configured printer queues
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • CUPS configuration files, tools and utilities
  • /etc/cups/
  • lpd legacy interface (lpr, lprm, lpq)

Topic 109: Networking Fundamentals

109.1 Fundamentals of internet protocols
Weight 4
Description Candidates should demonstrate a proper understanding of TCP/IP network fundamentals.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Demonstrate an understanding of network masks and CIDR notation
  • Knowledge of the differences between private and public “Dotted quad” IP addresses
  • Knowledge about common TCP and UDP ports (20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 53, 80, 110, 123, 139, 143, 161, 162, 389, 443, 465, 514, 636, 993, 995)
  • Knowledge about the differences and major features of UDP, TCP and ICMP
  • Knowledge of the major differences between IPv4 and IPv6
  • Knowledge of the basic features of IPv6
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • /etc/services
  • IPv4, IPv6
  • Subnetting
  • TCP, UDP, ICMP
109.2 Basic network configuration
Weight 4
Description Candidates should be able to view, change, and verify configuration settings on client hosts.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Manually and automatically configure network interfaces
  • Basic TCP/IP host configuration
  • Setting a default route
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • /etc/hostname
  • /etc/hosts
  • /etc/nsswitch.conf
  • ifconfig
  • ifup
  • ifdown
  • ip
  • route
  • ping
109.3 Basic network troubleshooting
Weight 4
Description Candidates should be able to troubleshoot networking issues on client hosts.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Manually and automatically configure network interfaces and routing tables. This includes adding, starting, stopping, restarting, deleting or reconfiguring network interfaces.
  • Change, view, or configure the routing table and correct an improperly set default route manually
  • Debug problems associated with the network configuration
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • ifconfig
  • ip
  • ifup
  • ifdown
  • route
  • host
  • hostname
  • dig
  • netstat
  • ping
  • ping6
  • traceroute
  • traceroute6
  • tracepath
  • tracepath6
  • netcat
109.4 Configure client DNS
Weight 2
Description Candidates should be able to configure DNS on a client host.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Query remote DNS servers
  • Configure local name resolution and use remote DNS servers
  • Modify the order in which name resolution is executed
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • /etc/hosts
  • /etc/resolv.conf
  • /etc/nsswitch.conf
  • host
  • dig
  • getent

Topic 110: Security

110.1 Perform security administration tasks
Weight 3
Description Candidates should know how to review system configuration to ensure host security in accordance with local security policies.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Audit a system to find files with the SUID/SGID bit set
  • Set or change user passwords and password aging information
  • Use nmap and netstat to discover open ports on a system
  • Set up limits on user logins, processes and memory usage
  • Basic sudo configuration and usage
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • find
  • passwd
  • fuser
  • lsof
  • nmap
  • chage
  • netstat
  • sudo
  • /etc/sudoers
  • su
  • usermod
  • ulimit
  • who, w, last
110.2. Security settings of host
Weight 3
Description Candidates should know how to set up a basic level of host security.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Awareness of shadow passwords and how they work
  • Turn off network services not in use
  • Understand the role of TCP wrappers
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • /etc/nologin
  • /etc/passwd
  • /etc/shadow
  • /etc/xinetd.d/
  • /etc/xinetd.conf
  • /etc/inetd.d/
  • /etc/inetd.conf
  • /etc/inittab
  • /etc/init.d/
  • /etc/hosts.allow
  • /etc/hosts.deny
110.3 Securing data with encryption
Weight 3
Description Candidates should be able to use public key techniques to secure data and communication.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Basic OpenSSH 2 client configuration and usage
  • Understand the role of OpenSSH 2 server host keys
  • Basic GnuPG configuration, usage, and revocation
  • Understand SSH port tunnels (including X11 tunnels)
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • ssh
  • ssh-keygen
  • ssh-agent
  • ssh-add
  • ~/.ssh/id_rsa and id_rsa.pub
  • ~/.ssh/id_dsa and id_dsa.pub
  • /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key and ssh_host_rsa_key.pub
  • /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key and ssh_host_dsa_key.pub
  • ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
  • /etc/ssh_known_hosts
  • gpg
  • ~/.gnupg/
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