LinuC Level 2

LinuC-2

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Exam 201 Objectives

LinuC Level 2 certification is awarded after passing both Exam 201 and Exam 202 and must have an active LinuC level 1 certification. The exams may be taken in any order. The objectives of level 2 cover the advanced technology necessary for Linux engineers common to Linux distributions.

Topic 200: Capacity Planning

200.1 Measure and troubleshoot resource usage
Weight 6
Description Candidates should be able to measure hardware resource and usage of network bandwidth and identify and troubleshoot resource problems.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Measure CPU usage
  • Measure memory usage
  • Measure disk I/O
  • Measure network I/O
  • Measure firewalling and routing throughput
  • Map client bandwidth usage
  • Match / correlate system symptoms with likely problems
  • Estimate throughput and identify bottlenecks in a system including networking
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • iostat
  • iotop
  • vmstat
  • netstat
  • ss
  • iptraf
  • pstree, ps
  • w
  • lsof
  • top
  • htop
  • uptime
  • sar
  • swap
  • processes blocked on I/O
  • blocks in
  • blocks out
200.2 Predict future resource needs
Weight 2
Description Candidates should be able to monitor resource usage to predict future resource needs.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Use monitoring and measurement tools to monitor IT infrastructure usage
  • Predict capacity break point of a system configuration
  • Observe growth rate of resource usage
  • Graph the trends of resource usage
  • Knowledge of monitoring tools such as Icinga2, Nagios, collectd, MRTG, and Cacti
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • diagnose
  • predict growth
  • resource exhaustion

Topic 201: Linux Kernel

201.1 Kernel components
Weight 2
Description Candidates should be able to utilize kernel components that are necessary for specific hardware, hardware drivers, system resources and various requirements. This objective includes implementing different types of kernel images, identifying stable and development kernels and patches, as well as using kernel modules.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Kernel 2.6.x, 3.x, and 4.x documentation
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • /usr/src/linux
  • /usr/src/linux/Documentation
  • zImage
  • bzImage
  • xz data compression
201.2 Compiling a kernel
Weight 3
Description Candidates should be able to properly configure a kernel to include or disable specific features of the Linux kernel as necessary. This objective includes compiling or recompiling the Linux kernel as needed, updating and noting changes in a new kernel, creating an initrd image, and installing new kernels.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • /usr/src/linux/
  • Kernel Makefiles
  • Kernel 2.6.x, 3.x, and 4.x make targets
  • Customize the current kernel configuration
  • Build a new kernel and appropriate kernel modules
  • Install a new kernel and necessary modules
  • Ensure that the boot manager can locate the new kernel and associated files
  • Module configuration files
  • Use DKMS to compile kernel modules
  • Knowledge of Dracut
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • mkinitrd
  • mkinitramfs
  • make
  • make targets (all, config, xconfig, menuconfig, gconfig, oldconfig, mrproper, zImage, bzImage, modules, modules_install, rpm-pkg, binrpm-pkg, deb-pkg)
  • gzip
  • bzip2
  • module tools
  • /usr/src/linux/.config
  • /lib/modules/kernel-version/*
  • depmod
  • dkms
201.3 Kernel run-time management and troubleshooting
Weight 4
Description Candidates should be able to manage and/or query a 2.6.x, 3.x or 4.x kernel and its loadable modules. Candidates should be able to identify and correct common boot and run time issues. Candidates should understand device detection and management using udev. This objective includes troubleshooting udev rules.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Use command-line utilities to get information about the currently running kernel and kernel modules
  • Manually load and unload kernel modules
  • Determine when modules can be unloaded
  • Determine what parameters a module accepts
  • Configure the system to load modules by names other than their file name
  • /proc filesystem
  • Content of /, /boot and /lib/modules
  • Tools and utilities to analyze information about the available hardware
  • udev rules
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • /lib/modules/kernel-version/modules.dep
  • module configuration files in /etc
  • /proc/sys/kernel/
  • /sbin/depmod
  • /sbin/rmmod
  • /sbin/modinfo
  • /bin/dmesg
  • /sbin/lspci
  • /usr/bin/lsdev
  • /sbin/lsmod
  • /sbin/modprobe
  • /sbin/insmod
  • /bin/uname
  • /usr/bin/lsusb
  • /etc/sysctl.conf, /etc/sysctl.d/
  • /sbin/sysctl
  • udevmonitor
  • udevadm monitor
  • /etc/udev

Topic 202: System Startup

202.1 Customizing system startup
Weight 3
Description Candidates should be able to query and modify the behavior of system services at various targets / runlevels. A thorough understanding of the systemd, SysV init and the Linux boot process is required. This objective includes interacting with systemd targets and SysV init runlevels.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Systemd
  • SysV init
  • Linux Standard Base Specification (LSB)
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • /usr/lib/systemd/
  • /etc/systemd/
  • /run/systemd/
  • systemctl
  • systemd-delta
  • /etc/inittab
  • /etc/init.d/
  • /etc/rc.d/
  • chkconfig
  • update-rc.d
  • init and telinit
202.2 System recovery
Weight 4
Description Candidates should be able to properly manipulate a Linux system during both the boot process and recovery mode. This objective includes using both the init utility and init-related kernel options. Candidates should be able to determine the cause of errors in loading and usage of bootloaders. Bootloaders covered are GRUB version 2 and GRUB Legacy. Both BIOS and UEFI systems are covered.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • BIOS and UEFI
  • NVMe booting
  • GRUB version 2 and GRUB Legacy
  • grub shell
  • Boot loader start and hand off to kernel
  • Kernel loading
  • Hardware initialization and setup
  • Daemon/service initialization and setup
  • Know the different bootloader install locations on a hard disk or removable device
  • Change standard bootloader options and use bootloader shells
  • Use systemd rescue and emergency modes
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • mount
  • fsck
  • inittab, telinit and init with SysV init
  • The contents of /boot/, /boot/grub/ and /boot/efi/
  • EFI System Partition (ESP)
  • GRUB
  • grub-install
  • efibootmgr
  • UEFI shell
  • initrd, initramfs
  • Master boot record
  • systemctl
202.3 Alternate bootloaders
Weight 2
Description Candidates should be aware of other bootloaders and their major features.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • SYSLINUX, ISOLINUX, PXELINUX
  • Understanding of PXE for both BIOS and UEFI
  • Awareness of systemd-boot and U-Boot
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • syslinux
  • extlinux
  • isolinux.bin
  • isolinux.cfg
  • isohdpfx.bin
  • efiboot.img
  • pxelinux.0
  • pxelinux.cfg/
  • uefi/shim.efi
  • uefi/grubx64.efi

Topic 203: Filesystem and Devices

203.1 Operating the Linux filesystem
Weight 4
Description Candidates should be able to properly configure and navigate the standard Linux filesystem. This objective includes configuring and mounting various filesystem types.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Concept of fstab configuration
  • Tools and utilities for handling swap partitions and files
  • Use of UUIDs for identifying and mounting file systems
  • Understanding of systemd mount units
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • /etc/fstab
  • /etc/mtab
  • /proc/mounts
  • mount and umount
  • blkid
  • sync
  • swapon
  • swapoff
203.2 Maintaining a Linux filesystem
Weight 3
Description Candidates should be able to properly maintain a Linux filesystem using system utilities. This objective includes manipulating standard filesystems and monitoring SMART devices.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Tools and utilities to manipulate ext2, ext3, and ext4
  • Tools and utilities to perform basic Btrfs operations, including subvolumes and snapshots
  • Tools and utilities to manipulate XFS
  • Knowledge of ZFS
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • mkfs (mkfs.*)
  • mkswap
  • fsck (fsck.*)
  • tune2fs, dumpe2fs and debugfs
  • btrfs, btrfs-convert
  • xfs_info, xfs_check, xfs_repair, xfsdump, and xfsrestore
  • smartd, smartctl
203.3 Creating and configuring filesystem options
Weight 2
Description Candidates should be able to configure automount filesystems using AutoFS. This objective includes configuring automount for network and device filesystems. Also included is creating filesystems for devices such as CD-ROMs and a basic feature knowledge of encrypted filesystems.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • autofs configuration files
  • Understanding of automount units
  • UDF and ISO9660 tools and utilities
  • Knowledge of other CD-ROM filesystems (HFS)
  • Knowledge of CD-ROM filesystem extensions (Joliet, Rock Ridge, El Torito)
  • Basic feature knowledge of data encryption (dm-crypt / LUKS)
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • /etc/auto.master
  • /etc/auto.[dir]
  • mkisofs
  • cryptsetup

Topic 204: Advanced Storage Device Administration

204.1 Configuring RAID
Weight 3
Description Candidates should be able to configure and implement software RAID. This objective includes configuring RAID 0, 1, and 5.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Software RAID configuration files and utilities
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • mdadm.conf
  • mdadm
  • /proc/mdstat
  • partition type 0xFD
204.2 Adjusting storage device access
Weight 2
Description Candidates should be able to configure kernel options to support various drives. This objective includes software tools to view and modify hard disk settings including iSCSI devices.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Tools and utilities to configure DMA for IDE devices including ATAPI and SATA
  • Tools and utilities to configure SSD (Solid State Drives) including AHCI and NVMe
  • Tools and utilities to manipulate or analyze system resources (e.g. interrupts)
  • Knowledge of sdparm command and its uses
  • Tools and utilities for iSCSI
  • Knowledge of SAN, including relevant protocols (AoE, FCoE)
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • hdparm, sdparm
  • nvme
  • tune2fs
  • fstrim
  • sysctl
  • /dev/hd*, /dev/sd*, /dev/nvme*
  • iscsiadm, scsi_id, iscsid and iscsid.conf
  • WWID, WWN, LUN
204.3 Logical volume manager
Weight 3
Description Candidates should be able to create and remove logical volumes, volume groups, and physical volumes. This objective includes snapshots and resizing logical volumes.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Tools in the LVM suite
  • Resizing, renaming, creating, and removing logical volumes, volume groups, and physical volumes
  • Activating volume groups
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • /sbin/pv*
  • /sbin/lv*
  • /sbin/vg*
  • mount
  • /dev/mapper/
  • lvm.conf

Topic 205: Networking Configuration

205.1 Basic network configuration
Weight 3
Description Candidates should be able to configure a network device to be able to connect to a local, wired or wireless, and a wide-area network. This objective includes being able to communicate between various subnets within a single network including both IPv4 and IPv6 networks.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
  • Configuring wireless networks
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • ip
  • ifconfig
  • route
  • arp
  • iw
  • iwconfig
  • iwlist
205.2 Advanced network configuration
Weight 4
Description Candidates should be able to configure a network device to implement various network authentication schemes. This objective includes configuring a multi-homed network device, setting of VPN client and resolving communication problems.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Utilities to manipulate routing tables
  • Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
  • Utilities to analyze the status of the network devices
  • Utilities to monitor and analyze the TCP/IP traffic
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • ip
  • ifconfig
  • route
  • arp
  • ss
  • netstat
  • lsof
  • ping, ping6
  • nc
  • tcpdump
  • nmap
205.3 Troubleshooting network issues
Weight 4
Description Candidates should be able to identify and correct common network setup issues. This includes knowledge of locations for basic configuration files and commands
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Location and content of access restriction files
  • Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
  • Utilities to manage routing tables
  • Utilities to list network states
  • Utilities to gain information about the network configuration
  • Methods of obtaining information about the recognized and used hardware devices
  • System initialization files and their contents (init process of Systemd and SysV)
  • Knowledge of Network Manager and its impact on network configuration
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • ip
  • ifconfig
  • route
  • ss
  • netstat
  • /etc/network/, /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
  • ping, ping6
  • traceroute, traceroute6
  • mtr
  • hostname
  • System log files such as /var/log/syslog, /var/log/messages and the systemd journal
  • dmesg
  • /etc/resolv.conf
  • /etc/hosts
  • /etc/hostname, /etc/HOSTNAME
  • /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny

Topic 206: System Maintenance

206.1 Make and install programs from source
Weight 2
Description Candidates should be able to build and install an executable program from source. This objective includes the ability to unpack source files.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Unpack source code using common compression and archive utilities
  • Understand basics of invoking make to compile programs
  • Apply parameters to a configure script
  • Know where sources are stored by default
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • /usr/src/
  • gunzip
  • gzip
  • bzip2
  • xz
  • tar
  • configure
  • make
  • uname
  • install
  • patch
206.2 Backup operations
Weight 3
Description Candidates should be able to use system tools to back up important system data.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Knowledge of directories that have to be included in backups
  • Knowledge of network backup solutions such as Amanda, Bacula, Bareos and BackupPC
  • Knowledge of the benefits and drawbacks of tapes, CDRs, disks or other backup media
  • Perform partial and manual backups
  • Verify the integrity of backup files
  • Partially or fully restore backups
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • /bin/sh
  • dd
  • tar
  • /dev/st* and /dev/nst*
  • mt
  • rsync
206.3 Notify users on system-related issues
Weight 1
Description Candidates should be able to notify users about current issues related to the system.
Key Knowledge Areas
  • Automate notification to users through logon messages
  • Notify active users of system maintenance
Important files, terms, and utilities:
  • /etc/issue
  • /etc/issue.net
  • /etc/motd
  • wall
  • shutdown
  • systemctl
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