LinuC Level 1

LinuC-1

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Exam 101 Objectives (Version 10.0)

LinuC Level 1 certification is awarded after passing both Exam 101 and Exam 102. This exam covers the skills necessary for Linux professionals common to all Linux distributions.

Each item on the exam is weighted relevant to its importance. The weight is approximately in the range 1 to 10, and indicates the relative importance of the topic covered. Questions on topics with higher weight appear more often in the exams.

Topic 1.01: Linux Installation, Virtual Machine and Container Usage

1.01.1 Install, boot, connect, disconnect and stop Linux
Weight 4
Overview
  • Candidates can install Linux on physical and virtual machines using a DVD or ISO image file.
  • Candidates can start and stop Linux on physical and virtual machines.
Details
  • Change the boot media priority in the UEFI/BIOS settings.
  • Complete the Linux installation according to the specifications.
    • Package group selection, timezone, password, GUI/CUI
  • Start and stop Linux systems.
    • shutdown, reboot, halt
  • Connect to Linux system using a key and disconnect from it normally.
    • ssh
    • ~/.ssh/authorized_keys, ~/.ssh/known_hosts
    • ~/.ssh/id_rsa and id_rsa.pub
    • logout, exit, ^D
1.01.2 Concept and use of virtual machine and container
Weight 4
Overview
  • Candidates understand the basic technology to realize virtual machines and containers.
  • Candidates understand the characteristics and differences of hypervisor and container.
  • Candidates can start and stop virtual machines and containers.
Details
  • Understand the relationship between the kernel, hypervisor, and virtual machine.
    • Hypervisor, Hardware-assisted virtualization
    • Characteristics of virtual machines and containers.
  • Understand the relationship between the host OS and the container.
  • Start and stop virtual machines.
    • virsh
  • Log in to the virtual machine.
  • Start and stop the container.
    • docker
1.01.3 Boot process and systemd
Weight 4
Overview
  • Candidates understand the boot procedure from UEFI/BIOS to boot completion.
  • Candidates can manage systemd boot targets on the system. This includes changing to single-user mode, shutting down or rebooting the system, and setting the default systemd boot target.
Details
  • Set the default boot target.
    • systemd, systemctl
  • Change boot target (including single user mode).
    • systemctl
  • Shutdown and reboot from the command line.
    • shutdown, halt, reboot, poweroff
1.01.4 Create, monitor and terminate process
Weight 3
Overview
  • Candidates can perform basic process management.
Details
  • Run the job in the foreground or background.
    • &, bg, fg, jobs
  • Send a signal to the program to continue execution after logging out.
    • nohup, screen, tmux
  • Monitor active processes.
    • top, ps, pstree, uptime
  • Select, sort and display processes.
    • pgrep
  • Send a signal to the process.
    • kill, pkill, killall
1.01.5 Use desktop environment
Weight 1
Overview
  • Candidates can use the X11 desktop environment system.
Details
  • Basic understanding and knowledge of the components of the X Window System
    • startx, X server, X client, Display Manager, Window Manager, X Window System, integrated desktop environment
  • Launch GUI in X11 environment locally and remotely.
    • xauth, DISPLAY, terminal program

Topic 1.02: File / Directory Manipulation and Management

1.02.1 File owners and permissions
Weight 3
Overview Candidates can control accesses to the files with appropriate permissions and owner privileges.
Details
  • Manage access permissions for regular files, special files, and directories.
    • chmod, ls
  • Maintain security using access modes such as SUID, SGID, and sticky bit.
    • chmod, chown, chgrp, ls
  • Figure out how to change the file creation mask.
    • umask
  • Make the file accessible to group members using the group field.
    • chown, chgrp
1.02.2 Perform basic file management
Weight 3
Overview Candidates can use basic Linux commands to manage files and directories.
Details
  • Copy, move, and delete individual files and directories.
    • ls, file, touch, cp, mv, rm, mkdir, rmdir, tar
  • Recursively copy multiple files and directories.
    • cp
  • Delete files and directories recursively.
    • rm, find
  • Use wildcard rules in commands, from basic to advanced.
    • File name pattern matching
  • Find and manipulate files below a specific path based on file name, type, size, time, owner, etc.
    • find
  • Archive, compress and decompress files.
    • tar, dd, gzip, gunzip, bzip2, xz
1.02.3 Hard and symbolic links
Weight 2
Overview Candidates can create and manage hard and symbolic links to files.
Details
  • Create a link.
    • ln [-s]
  • Identify hard links and symbolic links.
    • ls [-lFi]
  • Know the difference between copying a file and linking.
    • Files, directories
  • Use links to support system administration tasks.
    • version control
1.02.4 File placement and search
Weight 2
Overview Candidates are familiar with the FHS (Filesystem Hierarchy Standard), including typical file locations and directory taxonomies.
Details
  • Find files and commands on Linux system.
    • find, locate, updatedb, /etc/updatedb.conf, type, whereis, which
  • Know the correct location and purpose of important files and directories defined by FHS.

Topic 1.03: GNU and Unix commands

1.03.1 Command line operations
Weight 4
Overview Candidates can interact with shells and commands using the command line. This assumes the bash shell.
Details
  • Perform basic work at the command line, using single shell commands and one-line command sequences.
  • Use and change shell variables, including defining, referencing and exporting environment variables.
    • set, unset, export, env, echo, quotes
  • Use and edit command history.
    • history, .bash_history
  • Invoke commands that exist and do not exist in the defined path.
    • bash, pwd, ., relative path, absolute path
  • Manual reference
    • man
1.03.2 Process text stream with filters
Weight 3
Overview Candidates can apply a filter to the text stream.
Details
  • Use the standard UNIX commands in the GNU textutils package to send the output of a text file or stream to a text utility filter and modify the output.
    • cat, cut, expand, fmt, head, join, less, nl, od, paste, pr, sed, sort, split, tail, tr, unexpand, uniq, wc
1.03.3 Use streams, pipes and redirects
Weight 4
Overview
  • Candidates can redirect and connect the streams to effectively process text data.
  • This involves redirecting to standard input, standard output, standard error output, pipe the output of one command to the input of another command, use the output of one command as an argument to another command, and the output as standard output. It includes sending the output to both standard output and a file.
Details
  • Redirect standard input, standard output, and standard error output.
    • <, >, >>, 2>&1
  • Pipe the output of one command to the input of another.
    • | (Vertical line)
  • Use the output of one command as an argument to another command.
    • xargs
  • Send output to both standard output and a file.
    • tee
1.03.4 Search text files using regular expressions
Weight 2
Overview Candidates can work with files and text data using regular expressions. This includes creating simple regular expressions containing some notational elements. It also includes using regular expression tools to perform searches on the filesystem or the contents of files.
Details
  • Create a simple regular expression with some notational elements.
    • But, regex (7)
  • Use regular expression tools to perform searches on the filesystem or the contents of files.
    • grep, egrep, fgrep
1.03.5 Perform basic file edits using an editor
Weight 2
Overview
  • Candidates can edit text files using vi. This includes vi mode switching, text searching, editing, saving and exiting.
  • Candidates can change the editor.
Details
  • Switch the vi mode, edit, save, and exit.
    • i, o, a, ESC
    • h,j,k,l
    • ZZ, :w!, :q!, :e!
    • c, d, p, y, dd, yy
  • Search for text.
    • /,?
  • Switch between standard editors.
    • EDITOR, nano, emacs

Topic 1.04: Repository and Package Management

1.04.1 Package management by apt command
Weight 3
Overview Candidates can manage packages using the repository with the apt command.
Details
  • Install, update, or uninstall specific packages.
    • apt, apt-get, apt-cache, apt-file
  • Find a package that contains a particular file or library whether or not the package is installed.
  • Get package information such as version, contents, dependencies, package consistency, and installation status( whether the package is installed or not).
    • /etc/apt/sources.list
1.04.2 Debian package management
Weight 1
Overview Candidates can manage packages using Debian packaging tools.
Details
  • Install, upgrade, and uninstall Debian packages.
    • dpkg
  • Display a list of installed Debian packages.
    • dpkg
  • Reconfigure installed packages.
    • dpkg-reconfigure
1.04.3 Package management by yum command
Weight 3
Overview Candidates can manage packages using the repository with the yum command.
Details
  • Understand the concept of repositories.
  • Find a package that contains a particular file or library, whether or not the package is installed.
    • yum
  • Get package information such as version, contents, dependencies, package integrity, installation status (whether or not the package is installed).
    • /etc/yum.repos.d/
    • /etc/yum.conf
    • yumdownloader
1.04.4 RPM package management
Weight 1
Overview You can manage packages using RPM packaging tools.
Details
  • Get information such as RPM package version, state, dependencies, integrity and signatures.
    • rpm
  • Get which files a package provides, and which packages a particular file comes from.
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