LinuC Level 2



Exam 201 Objectives

LinuC Level 2 certification is awarded after passing both Exam 201 and Exam 202 and Exam 201 and having an active LinuC Level 1 certification. The exams may be taken in any order. The objectives of level 2 cover the advanced technology necessar202.htmly for Linux engineers common to Linux distributions.

Each item on the exam is weighted relevant to its importance. The weight is approximately in the range 1 to 10, and indicates the relative importance of the topic covered. Questions on topics with higher weight appear more often in the exams.

Topic 2.01: System Boot and Linux Kernel

2.01.1 Boot process and GRUB
Weight 4
Overview Candidates properly operate the Linux system during the boot process and in recovery mode. The relevant boot loader is GRUB version 2. This covers both BIOS and UEFI systems.
  • BIOS and UEFI
    • Master Boot Record (MBR)
    • EFI System Partition (ESP), efibootmgr, UEFI shell
  • Modify standard boot loader options and use the boot loader shell (command line).
  • Start bootloader and hand over to kernel.
  • Generate a GRUB boot menu.
    • grub-mkconfig, grub2-mkconfig
  • Load the kernel loadable module.
    • initrd, initramfs
  • Hardware initialization and configuration.
    • Device, module
  • Check and mount the filesystem.
  • Daemon/service initialization and configuration
    • systemctl, systemd.unit
  • Know where to install the boot loader on the hard disk or removable device.
  • grub-install, grub2-install
    • Contents of /boot/, /boot/grub/, /boot/grub2/ and /boot/efi/
2.01.2 Systemd boot customization
Weight 3
Overview Candidates query and modify the behavior of various target systemd services. A good understanding of systemd and the Linux boot process is required. This includes working with systemd targets.
  • systemd
    • /usr/lib/systemd/, /etc/systemd/, /run/systemd/, systemctl, systemd-delta
    • systemctl status,systemctl list-units,systemctl start/stop,systemctl enable/disable,systemctl mask/unmask
  • systemd rescue and emergency modes
2.01.3 Linux kernel components
Weight 2
Overview Candidates take advantage of specific hardware, hardware drivers, system resources, and kernel components that are needed for various needs. This includes implementing different types of kernel images, distinguishing stable and development kernels and patches, and utilizing kernel modules.
  • Kernel distribution format
    • bzImage ,xz data compression
  • Kernel modules and documentation
    • /usr/src/linux/
    • /usr/src/linux/Documentation/
2.01.4 Compiling the Linux kernel
Weight 2
Overview Candidates can properly configure the kernel to include or disable certain features of the Linux kernel as needed. Candidates can also compile the Linux kernel, write the changes to the new kernel, create an initrd image, and install the new kernel if needed.
  • /usr/src/linux/
    • /usr/src/linux/.config
  • Kernel Makefile
  • Kernel 2.6.x, 3.x, 4.x, 5.x make targets
    • all, config, xconfig, menuconfig, gconfig, oldconfig, mrproper, bzImage, modules, modules_install, rpm-pkg, binrpm-pkg, deb-pkg
  • Customize the kernel configuration.
  • Build a new kernel and the appropriate kernel module.
    • /lib/modules/kernel-version/, gzip, bzip2
  • Install a new kernel and required modules.
    • module tools, depmod
  • Allow the boot manager to find the new kernel and associated files.
  • Module configuration file
  • Compile the kernel modules using DKMS.
    • dkms
  • Configure initrd.
    • Dracut, mkinitrd, mkinitramfs
2.01.5 Management and troubleshooting during kernel execution
Weight 3
Overview Candidates can manage and query the 2.6.x, 3.x, 4.x, 5.x kernels and their loadable modules. Candidates can identify and fix common boot and run-time problems. Candidates understand device detection and management using udev. This includes troubleshooting udev rules.
  • Use command line utilities to get information about the currently running kernel and kernel modules.
    • depmod, modinfo
  • Manually load and unload kernel modules.
    • modprobe, insmod, lsmod, rmmod
  • Determine when a module can be unloaded.
  • Determine the parameters that the module receives.
    • /etc/modprobe.d/
  • Check the kernel version.
    • uname
    • /lib/modules/kernel-version/modules.dep
  • Configure the system to load modules with different names instead of file names.
  • /proc file system
    • /proc/sys/kernel/
    • /etc/sysctl.conf, /etc/sysctl.d/, /sbin/sysctl
  • Configure initrd..
    • Dracut,mkinitrd, mkinitramfs
  • /sys file system (sysfs)
  • Contents of /boot and /lib/modules
  • Tools to analyze information about available hardware
    • dmesg, lspci, lsdev, lsusb, journalctl
  • udev rules
    • udevmonitor, udevadm monitor, /etc/udev/
    • Module configuration file in /etc
  • Get a kernel dump. This does not include settings.
    • kdump, kexec

Topic 2.02: Filesystem and Storage Management

2.02.1 Filesystem setup and mount
Weight 3
Overview Candidates can properly configure and operate standard Linux filesystems. This includes setting up and mounting various filesystems.
  • fstab setting concept
    • /etc/fstab
  • Mount and unmount filesystems.
    • mount, umount, /etc/mtab, /proc/mounts, systemd
    • Mount order
  • Tools for working with swap partitions and files
    • swapon, swapoff, mkswap
  • Use UUIDs to identify and mount filesystems.
    • blkid, lsblk
2.02.2 Filesystem management
Weight 4
Overview Candidates can use system utilities to properly maintain the Linux filesystem. This includes standard filesystem operations and SMART device monitoring.
  • Tools for manipulating filesystems
    • mkfs (mkfs.*), fsck (fsck.*)
  • Tools for operating ext4
    • tune2fs, dumpe2fs, dump, restore
  • Tools for manipulating XFS
    • xfs_info, xfs_check, xfs_repair, xfsdump, xfsrestore
  • Tools to manipulate basic Btrfs, including subvolumes and snapshots
  • Convert and manipulate ext4 filesystems to Btrfs.
    • btrfs, btrfs-convert
  • Monitor the health of HDD and SSD.
    • smartd, smartctl
2.02.3 Logical Volume Manager configuration and management
Weight 3
Overview Candidates can create and delete logical volumes, volume groups, and physical volumes. This includes snapshots and resizing of logical volumes.
  • LVM tools and configuration files
    • lvm, lvm.conf
  • How to create and delete physical volumes
    • pv* command
  • How to create/delete volume groups, and add/delete, rename, enable/disable physical volumes
    • vg* command
  • How to create/delete, resize, rename, enable/disable logical volumes
    • lv* command

Topic 2.03: Network Configuration

2.03.1 Basic network configuration
Weight 3
Overview Candidates can configure the network devices to connect to wired or wireless local and wide area networks.
  • Set up and operate the Ethernet network interface. Includes default route settings.
    • ip, ifconfig, route, arp, nmcli
  • Configure a wireless network.
    • iw, iwconfig, iwlist
2.03.2 Advanced network configuration
Weight 3
  • Candidates can set routes to multiple subnets. This also includes router function settings.
  • Candidates can monitor the network status.
  • Candidates can analyze network devices and communication status.
  • Utility for manipulating the routing table
    • ip, route
  • Set the IP forward to implement the router function.
    • /etc/sysctl.conf, sysctl
  • Utility to analyze the status of network devices
    • ip, ifconfig
  • Utility to monitor and analyze TCP/IP communication status and traffic
    • ping, ping6, netcat(nc, ncat), tcpdump, nmap, ss, netstat
2.03.3 Network problem solving
Weight 3
Overview Candidates can identify and resolve common network configuration issues. This also includes knowledge of basic configuration file locations and commands.
  • Get information about network settings.
    • hostname, /etc/hostname, /etc/hosts, /etc/resolv.conf, nmcli, ip
  • Identify and resolve network communication path problems.
    • traceroute, traceroute6, ip, route, mtr
  • Get information about hardware recognition and usage.
    • System log files such as dmesg, /var/log/syslog and /var/log/messages and systemd journal
  • System initialization file and its contents (systemd)
  • Know about NetworkManager and its impact on network settings.
    • /etc/network/, /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/

Topic 2.04: System Maintenance and Operations Management

2.04.1 Build and install from source code by make
Weight 3
Overview Candidates can build and install an executable program from the source code. This includes unpacking the source files.
  • Get the source code using git.
    • git clone, git tag -l, git checkout
  • Extract the source code using popular compression and archiving utilities.
    • gzip, gunzip, bzip2, xz, tar, unzip
  • Apply a patch to the source code.
    • patch
  • Apply parameters to the configure script.
    • configure
  • Understand the basics of running make to build a program.
    • make, make install
2.04.2 Backup and restore
Weight 3
  • Candidates can use system tools to backup important system data.
  • Candidates can create a backup plan for the Linux system.
  • Get the source code using git.
    • git clone, git tag -l, git checkout
  • Extract the source code using popular compression and archiving utilities.
    • gzip, gunzip, bzip2, xz, tar, unzip
  • Apply a patch to the source code.
    • patch
  • Apply parameters to the configure script.
    • configure
  • Understand the basics of running make to build a program.
    • make, make install
2.04.3 Notification to users
Weight 3
Overview Candidates notify users about current system-related issues.
  • Automatically notify users using logon messages.
    • /etc/issue, /etc/, /etc/motd
  • Notify active users of system maintenance.
    • wall, shutdown, systemctl
2.04.4 Understand resource usage status
Weight 3
Overview Candidates measure hardware resources and network bandwidth utilization and solve resource problems.
  • Measure CPU usage.
    • top, htop, ps, sar
  • Measure memory usage.
    • vmstat, free, sar
  • Measure disk I/O.
    • iostat, iotop, sar
    • I/O waiting process, blocks in, blocks out
  • Measure network I/O.
    • netstat, iftop, ss, sar
  • Display the files and ports that the system has open.
    • lsof
  • Measure firewall capabilities and routing throughput.
  • Map client bandwidth usage.
  • Estimate throughput and find bottlenecks in systems that include networking.
    • iptraf
2.04.5 Alive monitoring, resource monitoring, operation monitoring tool
Weight 2
  • Candidates understand the importance of system monitoring.
  • Candidates can select an appropriate monitoring method according to the monitoring target.
  • Candidates understand the merits and types of introducing operation monitoring tools and monitor the system appropriately.
  • Know the links between system failures and signs.
    • Resource exhaustion, overload, abnormal stop, abnormal result, OOMKiller
    • System life and death, service life and death
  • Targets and methods of alive monitoring
    • Response, log monitoring (server, service, process, network)
  • Targets and methods of resource monitoring
    • Log monitoring, usage rate monitoring (CPU, memory, storage, communication volume), SNMP
  • Standardize and automate monitoring work using operations monitoring tools
    • Standard control items, standard thresholds, standard alert methods
    • Monitoring method package, multiple monitoring
  • Know major monitoring tools.
    • Icinga2、Nagios、collectd、MRTG、Cacti、Zabbix
2.04.6 System configuration tool
Weight 4
  • Candidates understand the need for system configuration tools.
  • Candidates can set the target host using the system configuration tool.
  • Know the functions and merits of the system configuration tool.
    • Standardization of automation, efficiency, scalability, idempotency
  • Understand the components of Ansible.
    • Inventory, modules, playbooks
  • Automate system configuration changes.
    • Delivery of virtual servers and containers
    • Application release
    • Obtain status of network devices and change settings
  • Files and tools for automation
    • Playbook, YAML
    • ansible, ansible-playbook

Topic 2.05: Virtual Machine

2.05.1 Mechanism of virtual machines and KVM
Weight 3
Overview Candidates understand the basic mechanism of virtual machines and introduce KVM to build a virtual machine execution environment.
  • Know the basics of virtual machines.
    • Host type and hypervisor type (KVM, VirtualBox, Xen)
    • Virtualization of computer resources (CPU, memory, storage, network)
  • Install KVM and set up and configure the environment for running virtual machines.
    • QEMU
    • Hardwre-assisted Virtualization (vmx and svm)
    • /proc/cpuinfo, lscpu
    • KVM modules (kvm-intel and kvm-amd)
    • libvirtd
    • virt-manager
    • Network configuration (bridge-utils)
2.05.2 Virtual machine creation and management
Weight 3
Overview Candidates can use various tools to create a virtual machine and start or stop it.
  • Create a virtual machine and install the OS.
    • virt-manager, virt-install, full virtualization and paravirtualization (virtio)
  • Start and stop the virtual machine.
    • virt-manager, virsh
  • Monitor performance.
    • virt-manager

Topic 2.06: Container

2.06.1 Container mechanism
Weight 2
Overview Candidates understand the basic container mechanism.
  • Understand the characteristics and differences of physical machines, virtual machines, and containers.
  • Know the relationship between the container filesystem and the image.
  • Know the concept of technology to realize containers.
    • Namespaces, cgroups
2.06.2 Docker container and container image management
Weight 3
  • Candidates can install Docker to build a container execution environment.
  • Candidates can run Docker containers.
  • Candidates can manage container images.
  • Install Docker and configure the network.
    • Port conversion, flat L2 network
  • Run the Docker container and stop it.
    • docker ps/stats, docker run/create/restart, docker pause/unpause, docker stop/kill, docker rm
  • Connect to a Docker container and run the process.
    • docker attach, docker exec
  • Manage container images.
    • Docker registry: docker images, docker pull, docker rmi, docker import
    • Dockerfile: docker build, docker commit
Page top