LinuC Level 1



Exam 102 Objectives (Version 10.0)

LinuC Level 1 certification is awarded after passing both Exam 101 and Exam 102. This exam covers the skills necessary for Linux professionals common to all Linux distributions.

Each item on the exam is weighted for its importance. The weight is approximately in the range 1 to 10, and indicates the relative importance of the topic covered. Questions on topics with higher weight appear more often in the exams.

Topic 1.06: Shell and Script

1.06.1 Customize the shell environment
Weight 4
Overview Candidates can customize the shell environment according to their needs. Change the overall profile and the user's profile.
  • Set environment variables (such as PATH) at login or when creating a new shell.
    • /etc/bash.bashrc, /etc/profile
    • ~/.bash_profile, ~/.bash_login, ~/.profile, ~/.bashrc, ~/.bash_logout
    • ., source, lists(;, &&, ||)
  • Use command substitution.
    • alias
  • Set the command search path to the appropriate directory.
    • PATH
1.06.2 Shell script
Weight 6
  • Candidates can create a new simple Bash script.
  • Candidates apply the created Bash script to system users.
  • Candidates can create a script that can branch the operation depending on the processing result.
  • Candidates provide an environment in which users without Linux skills can execute specified commands.
  • Candidates can handle shell script arguments.
  • Create Bash functions for a series of commonly used commands.
    • function
  • Use the first line (#!) to select an appropriate script interpreter.
  • Manage script location, ownership, and execution rights.
    • chown, chmod
  • Use standard sh syntax (loop).
    • for, while
  • Use the return value to indicate the success or failure of the command. Or specify a return value for the next command to pass and exit.
    • $?, exit
  • Change the processing according to the conditions.
    • if, case
  • Change the process according to the argument.
    • $#, $*, $@, $0, $1..$n, shift
  • Create a script that does not depend on the user who uses it.
    • PATH
  • Debug shell scripts.
    • bash -v, bash -x

Topic 1.07: Network Fundamentals

1.07.1 Internet protocol fundamentals
Weight 4
Overview Candidates demonstrate a proper understanding of the fundamentals of TCP/IP networks.
  • Network mask and CIDR notation
    • Subnetting
  • Difference between private and public IP addresses in dotted format
  • Common TCP and UDP ports (22/SSH, 25/SMTP, 53/DNS, 80/HTTP, 123/NTP, 443/HTTPS)
  • Differences and key features between UDP, TCP, and ICMP
  • Main differences between IPv4 and IPv6
  • Basic functions of IPv6
1.07.2 Basic network configuration
Weight 4
Overview Candidates can view, change, and check the settings on the host.
  • Manually and automatically configure the network interface.
    • /etc/hostname
    • ifconfig, ifup, ifdown, nmcli
    • ip addr
  • Basic TCP/IP settings for the host
    • /etc/hosts, /etc/nsswitch.conf, ping
  • Set a default route
    • ip route, route
1.07.3 Solving basic network problems
Weight 4
Overview Candidates can solve network problems on the host.
  • Investigate the cause of network problems.
    • host, dig, ping, ping6, netcat (nc, ncat), netstat, ss
    • traceroute, traceroute6, tracepath, tracepath6
  • Add, start, stop, restart, delete, and reconfigure network interfaces as needed.
    • ifconfig, ifup, ifdown, hostname
  • Modify, browse, and set the routing table and manually correct incorrect default route settings.
    • ip route, route
1.07.4 Client side DNS settings
Weight 2
Overview Candidates can set the DNS client.
  • Contact the remote DNS server.
    • host, dig
  • Use a remote DNS server with local name resolution settings.
    • /etc/resolv.conf
  • Change the execution order of name resolution.
    • getent, /etc/nsswitch.conf, /etc/hosts

Topic 1.08: System Management

1.08.1 Account management
Weight 5
Overview Candidates can add, delete, suspend, and change user accounts.
  • Add, change, and delete users and groups.
    • useradd, userdel, usermod
    • groupadd, groupdel, groupmod
    • /etc/default/useradd
  • Maintain a skeleton directory for new user accounts.
    • /etc/skel
  • Manage user/group information in password/group database. This includes affiliation of multiple groups.
    • passwd, /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow, /etc/group
    • getent, id
1.08.2 Job scheduling
Weight 4
Overview Candidates can use cron or anacron to run a job on a regular basis, or at to run a job at a specified time.
  • Manage jobs with cron and at.
    • /var/spool/cron/
  • Allow users to access cron and at services.
    • /etc/cron.allow, /etc/cron.deny
    • /etc/at.deny, /etc/at.allow
    • at, atq, atrm
    • /etc/cron.{d,daily,hourly,monthly,weekly}/
    • /etc/crontab
  • anacron settings
    • /etc/anacrontab
1.08.3 Localization and internationalization
Weight 3
Overview Candidates can switch the languages other than English. Candidates also understand why LANG=C is useful in scripts.
  • Understand the basics of internationalization (i18n) and localization (l10n).
  • Set locale settings and environment variables.
    • LANG, LC_ALL, LC_*
    • /usr/bin/locale
    • iconv, UTF-8, ISO-8859, ASCII, Unicode, ISO-2022-JP

Topic 1.09: Essential System Services

1.09.1 System time management
Weight 2
Overview Candidates can keep the system time properly and can synchronize the clock with NTP or chrony.
  • Set the system date and time.
    • date
  • Set the time on the hardware clock.
    • hwclock
  • Set the correct time zone.
    • /usr/share/zoneinfo/, /etc/timezone, /etc/localtime
    • TZ, tzselect, timedatectl
  • Basic NTP settings
    • ntpd, ntpdate, ntp.conf
    • chronyd, chronyc, chrony.conf
  • Use public standard NTP servers.
  • Know about the ntpq command.
1.09.2 System log
Weight 5
  • Candidates can configure the rsyslog daemon.
    • This involves configuring the log daemon to send log output to a central log server.
    • It also includes accepting log output as a central log server.
  • Candidates can use the journal subsystem of systemd.
  • Candidates can automate log rotation, compression, and deletion.
  • Set up the rsyslog daemon.
    • rsyslog.conf, rsyslogd
  • Query, filter, and delete systemd journals.
  • Understand standard facilities, priorities, and actions.
    • logger, system-cat
    • journalctl, /etc/systemd/journald.conf, /var/log/journal/
  • Set logrotate.
    • logrotate, /etc/logrotate.conf, /etc/logrotate.d/, /var/log/
1.09.3 Mail Delivery Agent (MTA) basics
Weight 2
Overview Candidates can get an overview of commonly available MTA programs and do basic shipping and aliasing on their host. Other setting files are not included.
  • Create an email alias.
    • /etc/aliases, newaliases
  • Set up email delivery.
    • ~/.forward, mail, mailq
  • Know about commonly available MTA programs (not including settings).
    • postfix, exim

Topic 1.10: Security

1.10.1 Implement security management work
Weight 3
Overview Candidates examine the system configuration and know how to enforce host security to comply with local security policies.
  • Audit the system for files with the SUID/SGID bit set.
    • find
  • Set or change a user's password and password aging information.
    • passwd, usermod, chage
  • Use nmap and netstat to find open ports on the system.
    • ss, netstat, nmap, lsof, fuser
  • Understand user login status and history.
    • who, w, last
  • Limit user logins, processes, and memory usage.
    • ulimit
  • Can set up and use basic sudo.
    • su, sudo, /etc/sudoers
  • Set automatic logout.
    • TMOUT
1.10.2. Host security settings
Weight 3
Overview Candidates know how to configure a basic level of host security.
  • Know shadow passwords and their features.
    • /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow, /etc/nologin
  • Turn off network services that are not being used.
    • /etc/xinetd.d/, /etc/xinetd.conf
    • /etc/inetd.d/, /etc/inetd.conf
    • systemctl, /etc/init.d/
    • chkconfig, service
  • Know the outline of Firewall.
    • iptables, firewalld
1.10.3 Protect data with encryption
Weight 3
  • Candidates understand the basics of public key technology.
  • Candidates can protect data and communications using public key technology.
  • Set up and use the OpenSSH client.
    • ssh-keygen, ssh-agent, ssh-add
  • Know the major encryption algorithms and features.
    • rsa, ecdsa, ed25519
  • Understand SSH port forwarding.
  • Set up and use basic GnuPG.
    • gpg, gpg-agent, ~/.gnupg/
1.10.4 Fundamentals of cloud security
Weight 3
  • Candidates know about the security differences between public cloud and on-premises Linux servers.
  • Candidates understand the risks of Linux servers on the public cloud.
  • Understand the management function of public cloud and the function division of Linux server.
    • Management console, firewall, routing
  • Understand the meaning of region selection (including domestic and international restrictions).
  • Understand how to use public cloud volatile storage.
  • Management by restrictions of cloud service providers
    • Maintenance, restart
  • Know the access route to the management console (system console) of the public cloud and the authentication method.
    • Access via the Internet, authentication method provided by cloud service providers
    • Multi-step/multi-factor authentication, one-time password

Topic 1.11: Open Source Culture

1.11.1 Open source concepts and licenses
Weight 3
  • Candidates know the definition and characteristics of open source.
  • Candidates know about major open source licenses.
  • Understand the definition of open source.
    • freedom
    • Source code
  • Understand the characteristics of open source.
    • Copyrighted material
    • No guarantee
    • Continuous development
    • There are many licenses
  • Know the key licensing features.
    • GPL, AGPL, LGPL, MPL, BSD series (MIT, Apache V2), public domain
    • Modification and redistribution
1.11.2. Open source communities and ecosystems
Weight 1
Overview Candidates know how open source development works.
  • Know the structure of the community and how to participate.
    • Mailing list, bulletin board, development site, development system
  • Know about joining the open source ecosystem.
    • Usage, introduction, bug report
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